Eat well, live longer

over_eating_on_couch_anim_500_wht_6531and look younger? Well according to the Times nutritionist Jane Clarke you can achieve all those things by eating better.

By which she means eating less (a low calorie i.e. no more than 1,800 a day, healthy diet is claimed to  add 7-10 years to your lifespan). If you are physically active however you will need more than that.

And eating foods high in anti-oxidants will reduce the cell damage caused by sun, smoke, pollution, burnt meat and rancid fat.

Avoid foods low in transfats, salt, and refined sugars which can increase your blood pressure, add to your weight and increase your risk of heart diseases.

So here is her recommended list of super-foods. Look them up yourself to see specific benefits.

  • Avocado
  • Blueberries
  • Carrots
  • Hemp oil
  • Live yoghurt
  • Oats
  • Onions
  • Garlic
  • Prunes
  • Sardines
  • Black tea
  • Water

There you have it. Eat, enjoy!

It might also help if you get off your backside and do some exercise!

Future-proofing your health

looking_in_mirror_successful_1600_wht_5648Scientists have found that making behavioural changes now can significantly improve your health in 20 years time.

They reached these conclusions after following thousands of people over a twenty year period to see what impact diet, exercise, and lifestyle choices made.

Exercise

Gentle and sustained exercise every day is good for your brain and can cut the risk of developing dementia by 40% according to a study that tracked people in a community in Framingham, Massachusetts since 1948.

A 20 year study into female nurses found that those who walked  30 minutes a day scored significantly better on mental-health tests.

However three years down the line the advice for a healthy heart is that it’s not good enough just to exercise – it  has to be intense.

Danish researchers recently reported a study of 10,000 adults in the BMJ which showed that a daily power walk or jog could cut the risk of heart disease by 50% whereas a slow amble made no difference.

The fast walking halved the risk of metabolic syndrome – a collection of factors such as a bulging midriff, high blood pressure, and abnormal blood fat levels – and jogging reduced it by 50%.

Generally the more effort you put into your exercise the better. Some experts say two 60-second workouts a week can reduce the risk of heart disease from middle-age onwards. The participants in one study did all-out 6 second sprints 6 times increasing to 10 times.

They lost 1kg without changing their diet or other activities but more importantly their cardiovascular function was improved after just 8 weeks. It suggests that HIT can have a significant impact on obesity and heart disease.

On the other hand yoga is an excellent way of reducing tension, reduces bmi, blood pressure and cholesterol levels.

Research at Erasmus University Medical Centre in Rotterdam shows that regular yoga can be as effective as strenuous forms of exercise when it comes to heart health. For patients with existing heart disease taking medication the benefits were even greater.

So if you can’t do high intensity training (HIT)or have a pre-existing heart condition yoga sounds like the ideal solution.

Eating meat

Eating even small amounts of processed meat like bacon, sausages, or salami, can increase your likelihood of  dying prematurely by 20% according to research at Harvard based on 100,000 people over 28 years.

Unprocessed red meat also carries a health risk. Daily servings of red meat (85g) over the length of the study brought an 18% increased risk of dying from heart disease, a 10% increased risk of dying from cancer and eating 100g a day increased the risk of diabetes by 19%.

Red meat is considered dangerous because steak often contains high amounts of saturated fat and salami and bacon contain high amounts of salt.

The BHF is reviewing its guidance on fat however and suggests you eat a healthy range of fats including the saturated type you find in lean meat and some dairy; along with fats from nuts, avocados, oily fish and seeds.

Replacing red meat with poultry, fish, vegetables, whole grains and other healthy foods could cut your risk of dying prematurely by 20%.

Eating naturally occurring fats rather than that in biscuits, cakes and snacks is the best advice.

Friends

Feeling isolated at work or under threat from colleagues is not just upsetting but is a long-term risk to your health and can more than double the risk of serious illness or early death.

A 20-year study at Tel Aviv university tracked more than 800 white-collar workers. Those who were surrounded by bullies and backstabbers were 2.4 more likely to die during the study.

On the other hand feeling supported and welcomed by co-workers seems to protect your health and well-being. Considering how much time we spend at work it’s important that it is a positive experience and somewhere you can get emotional support if you need it.

But it’s not just at work. Living alone in middle age can double your chances of developing Altzheimer’s especially if you are widowed or divorced according to the findings of a 20-year study of 2,000 people published in 2011.

Vitamin supplements

Some supplements may do more harm than good. German research published in Heart in 2012 found that calcium supplements taken to fend off osteoporosis can double the risk of heart attacks.

Research published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute found that men with prostate cancer who take more than 7  multi-vitamins a week are 30% more likely to get advanced and fatal forms of the disease.

Defenders of supplements argue that people who take them are more likely to be ill in the first place. But if you have a healthy diet and aren’t vegan why would you need to take supplements anyway?

Conscientiousness

Being conscientious i.e. doing what you say you will do, and paying attention to detail has significant health benefits according to the results of an 80-year study of American children from the age of eight called the Longevity Project.

Conscientious people live significantly longer. Being conscientious means having a prudent nature, being persistent and well-organised, somewhat obsessive and not generally carefree, say the authors of the study..

“Taking life seriously makes people want to live more meaningful, committed lives.  They also take fewer risks and look after their well-being everyday; they achieved much for their families and nurtured close relationships. They were persistent and successful and dedicated to things and people other than themselves.”

Holidays 

A quarter of us don’t take all our holidays in the UK (an average of 5 weeks). The US isn’t so generous with paid leave but data from the earlier mentioned Framingham study shows that women who don’t often take holidays are eight times more likely to develop coronary heart disease or have a heart attack than those who took two holidays a year.

Our bodies fact to our lifestyles and if that involves being stressed it’s not good for us.

Sex

Having sex is particularly important for middle-aged men. Those who have intercourse several times a week significantly reduce their risk of suffering a fatal stroke.

The University of Bristol monitored the cardiac health and sexual activity over over 900 men in Wales from a former mining village. The men were aged 45-59 when first studied in the early 1980s.

20% reported having sex once a month or less, 25% had sex twice a week or more often. The rest of the group were somewhere between these two extremes.

The 25% who enjoyed the most sex suffered the fewest fatal strokes according to the report in the Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health.

 Eating & Drinking

Studies in Japan show that stopping eating when you feel 80% full can reduce your calories intake by around 20%. Restricted calorie intake has been linked to longevity.

If you don’t fancy that approach a mediterranean diet helps replacing processed foods with freshly prepared meals rich in olive oil, oily fish and nuts. A low carb diet rich in nuts, grains, oat cereals and barley can reduce the risk of heart disease by 10% over 10 years.

Drinking in moderation can help you long term. A study of almost 2,000 men and women published in Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research showed that men and women who drink moderately tend to live longer than heavy drinkers or teetotallers.

Experts from the university of Texas found three drinks a day did no harm. Low-level alcohol consumption protects against coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in developed countries. So the experts think the benefits outweigh any risks.

Drinking tea also helps. Four or five cups a day helps to protect your heart. A survey of 13,000 people found that those drinking tea (with or without milk) had a better cardiovascular profile than coffee drinkers or those who drank neither.

Tea has a positive effect on blood pressure and has anti-oxidants that have survival benefits.

Diet Drinks are a definite no-no. Drinking artificially sweetened drinks including water is definitely not good for you. The American College of Cardiology suggest that people drinking two or more of these drinks a day are 30% more likely to have a heart attack, stroke, or other cardiovascular problem than people who never drink them.

Prime sources: Times Body + Soul June 2012 “How to be healthy in 20 years time”; Times Body & Soul January 2015 “The midlife healthy heart guide: the rules for men and women”; plus various posts from this site.

 

Natural Food. Really?

sweeten_the_pot_1600_wht_7039I’ve posted about diet drinks and Lite foods elsewhere and also about the amount of sugar in our diet.

The Sunday Times revealed this week that many best-selling supermarket meals and snacks contain more sugar than a can of Coca-Cola.

Even worse these items are described as “natural“. For example Kellogg’s natural wheat bran cereal contains 20g per 100g and their Honey Hoops 29g per 100g.

Among other products with high sugar content are ready meals, sauces, soups, and low-fat yoghurts, all of which had sugar levels considered high under NHS guidelines in which anything with less than 5g per 100g is considered low; and anything with over 15g per 100g high.(Note that low fat doesn’t mean low sugar).

Obesity campaigners blame the government for allowing the food and drinks industry to lace its products with sugar described as “wasted calories with no nutritional content“.

Other examples include Tesco’s 250g pack of oriental crispy chilli beef which contains 49g of sugar – or half the recommended daily limit. A 500g jar of Uncle Ben’s oriental lemon chicken sauce with ginger contains more sugar than 2.5 Mars bars (well it is made by Mars). And if you thought cranberry juice was healthy, a litre of Ocean Spray contains almost 12% sugar (119g), more than a 330ml can of Coca-Cola (35g).

Producers say that since they reduced salt food can have an acidic taste so they counter it by putting in sugar. Other say they use sugar as a preservative.

Now the government is planning to introduce a new warning scheme for shoppers so they can tell which products are high in sugar or salt 

At present a traffic light system is used by Sainsbury’s and Asda but Tesco and Morrisons use labelling relating to the proportion of sugar, salt and fat in each product compared to recommended guidelines.

Under the new scheme products will have red lights if they have more than 17.5g of fat per 100g, more than 5g per 100g of saturated fat, more than 22.5g per 100g of sugar, and more than1.5g of salt per 100g.

Sounds like good news for consumers. Unfortunately the government is not prepared to legislate and the scheme is voluntary. No doubt supermarkets will, as usual, be finding ways round it.

Nutritionists believe that the industry will only act if there is a nation-wide agreement and Which?, the consumer group says, “with a quarter of the UK population obese it’s vitally important that people know what’s in their food” and “Consumers are choosing low-fat and light options believing them to be healthier but our research  has found that in many cases they are not living up to their healthy image”.

Fish oils (again) & other stuff that keeps you healthy

healthy_food_1600_wht_5282OK this is not a long piece on the range of food that is good for you (but you’re welcome to add your penn’orth via comments)

First the fish oils ie Omega-3 acids, debate. Not long ago scientists said that it wasn’t as good for you as we had been led to believe even though there had been evidence that it helped kids at school.

Now a report in the Times newspaper says scientists are saying that eating oily fish – which contain omega-3 acids – such as herring, mackerel, or salmon, can add a least two years to your life.

The study followed 2,700 Americans of retirement age for 16 years and found that those with higher levels of fatty acids in their blood lived longer. Having adequate levels of omega-3 in your blood is good for your cardio-vascular health according to Dr Dariush Mozaffarian commenting on the research published in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

There are three omega-3 acids (the clue is in the name I think): Docosahexaenoic acid was linked to a 40% reduction in death from CHD; docosapentaenoic acid was linked to a lower risk of death from stroke; eicosapentaenoic acid was linked to a lower risk of non-fatal heart attacks. Together they were associated with cutting the risk of an early death by 27%

Secondly bananas. A report on bmj.com on research on 128,000 people said “High quality evidence shows that increased potassium intake reduces blood pressure in people with hypertension and has no adverse effect on …..or renal function in adults”.

Potassium is found in fruit, vegetables, nuts, seeds, milk, fish, bed chicken, turkey among other foods. Ensuring that you eat enough potassium in your diet eg from bananas, and cutting down on salt intake will reduce your chance of having a stroke by almost a quarter.

The DoH advises against older people taking potassium supplements unless advised by their GP as your kidneys become less able to remove it from your blood as you get older. But for most people there is a benefit.

Another study showed that modest reductions of salt over a few weeks can significantly reduce your blood pressure and therefor reduce the risk of heart disease and strokes.heart_beat_cardiogram_1600_wht_5646

Thirdly exercise. According to US scientists at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California, an hour’s brisk walk can do you as much good as 30 minutes of jogging as long as you get warm and raise your pulse rate. The study looked at over 30,000 runners and 15,000 walkers.

They found that running a kilometre reduces the risk of high blood pressure  and high cholesterol levels by 4.3% and heart disease by 4.5% but was 7% and 9.3% for walkers. The risk of diabetes was reduced by 12% for both runners and walkers. The report is in the journal Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology.

The choice therefore is to run for shorter periods or walk briskly for twice as long to expend the same energy. Some people don’t like running because they think it will damage their joints but recent evidence says there is no clear link and that exercise is good for joints and may ward off arthritis.

The British Heart Foundation’s view is that moderate-intense aerobic activity helps you reduce weight, cholesterol levels and blood pressure as well as improving your mental health.

Official guidelines in the UK are to do 2.5 hours of moderate exercise each week or 1.25 hours of vigorous exercise – either of which can be taken in 10-minute bursts. Basically any kind of physical exercise is good for you, even golf!

Some bad news from Japan however: bald men are more at risk of heart disease than those with a full head, or even receding, hair. Maybe it’s the testosterone?